The navigation bar is broken up into two areas: Course Tools and My Tools. The tools located under the Course Tools section are related to your course and contain course content. The tools located in the My Tools section contain information specifically for you, such as grades.
As you can see, some tools have a green box with a white asterisk, this indicates new material is available. The menu bar expands and collapses in order to maximize the use of screen space. In some areas like Learning Modules, it will automatically collapse but you can always expand it again if you need to do so. In the collapsed view only the icons are visible.
Please keep in mind all of the tools are shown for demonstration purposes only. Individual instructors can choose to use as many or as few of the tools in their course.