the total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group.
Two Main Forces that act on members to stay in Group
Attractiveness of the group--individual's desire for interpersonal interactions with other group members and a desire to be involved in the group's activities. (Sense of satisfaction).
Means Control--benefits that a member can derive by being associated with the group.
the degree to which members of a group work together to achieve common goals.
reflects the degree to which members of a team like each other and enjoy each other's company.
CARRON'S MODEL of Factors Affecting Cohesion
1. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
the most general and remote, refer to the normative forces holding a group together. (contracts, scholarships, family expectations)
These influences can hold a group together, although other factors such as age, proximity, or eligibility requirements can also play an important role.
2. PERSONAL FACTORS
refer to the individual characteristics of group members, such as participation motives.
task motivation (associated with task cohesion)
affiliation motivation (associated with social cohesion)
self-motivation (attempt to obtain personal satisfaction)
3. LEADERSHIP FACTORS
include leadership style and behaviors that professionals exhibit and the relationships they establish with their groups.
The role of leaders is vital to team cohesion.
Specifically clear, consistent, unambiguous communication from coaches and captains regarding team goals, etc…
4. TEAM FACTORS
refer to group characteristics (individual versus team sports), group productivity norms, desire for group success, and team stability.
The Relationship between Cohesion and Performance
Cohesion increases performance for interacting sports but decreases or shows no effect on performance for co-acting.
Co-acting Teams--archery, bowling, golf, riflry, skiing, wrestling.
Mixed--football, baseball, track.
Interacting--basketball, hockey, soccer, volleyball.
DIRECTION OF CAUSALITY
whether cohesion leads to performance success or performance success leads to cohesion.
OTHER FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH COHESION
Team Satisfaction--an individual factor. (Circular)
Conformity--the more cohesive the group, the more influence the group has on its individual members.
Adherence--exercise groups. Those that feel good cohesion are more likely to attend more classes, arrive on time, less likely to drop out, more resistant to disruptions in group, more likely experience positive affect related to exercise, have stronger efficacy beliefs related to exercise.
Social Support--there is a positive relationship between the social support an individual receives and her or his evaluations of group cohesion.
Stability--refers both to the turnover rate for group membership and to how long group members have been together.
The more cohesive a group is, the greater an influence it will have on individual members to conform to the group's norms.
Teams higher in cohesion can better resist disruption than teams lower in cohesion.
Teams that stay together longer tend to be more cohesive, which leads to improvements in performance.
PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE TEAM-BUILDING PROGRAM
Role Clarity and Acceptance--when group members clearly understand their roles in the group. When group members are satisfied and accept their roles in the group.
type of leadership should coincide with type of individuals or vise versa.
Principles of Team Building
Conformity to Standards
conformity to group social and task norms contribute to enhanced cohesion.
Togetherness--When group members are repetitively put in close physical proximity, feeling of cohesion increase.
Distinctiveness--the presence of group distinctiveness contributes to group cohesion.
Sacrifices--when high status members make sacrifices for the group, cohesion is enhanced.
Goals and Objectives--group goals are more strongly associated with team success than individual goals. Member participation in goal setting helps cohesion.
Cooperation--cooperative behavior is superior to individualistic behavior.
Common Barriers to Group Cohesion
Clash of personalities in the group
Conflict of task or social roles among members of the group
Breakdown in communication among group members or between the group leader and members
One or more members struggling for power
Frequent turnover of group members
Disagreement on group goals and objectives
What Coaches or Leaders can do
everyone is comfortable expressing thoughts and feelings.
Explain Individual Roles in Team Success
Develop Pride within Subunits
Set Challenging Group Goals
Encourage Group Identity
Avoid Formation of Social Cliques
Avoid Excessive Turnover
Conduct Periodic Team Meetings
Know the Team Climate
Know something personal about each group member
What Group Members can do
Get to know members of the group
Help group members whenever possible
Give group members positive reinforcement
Communicate honestly and openly with the coach or leader
Resolve conflicts immediately
Give 100% effort at all times
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTION
You are a new coach who has inherited a high school team that had a great deal of dissension and infighting last season. Discuss what you would do before and during the season to build both task and social cohesion in your team.