Please join us May 5th and May 6th in the WCC (Lochsa and Selway). The overall schedule is:

Thursday May 5th 9:00 am - noon and 1:00 pm - 3:45 pm: Talks

Friday May 6th 8:45 am - noon: Talks

Friday May 6th noon - 1 :30 pm: Poster session with PLMSS, Hells Canyon Institute, Research, and Computer Science students

See below for presentation schedule and abstracts.

SAC hall

Looking for NHS Symposium information?

You are also invited to Nursing and Health Sciences talks on May 5th in the Williams Conference Center (Clearwater/Snake Rooms). Talks will be 8:30 am - 11:30 am. A Zoom option is available, see the webpage for details.

PLMSS Schedule

Speakers Thurs. May 5 in the Lochsa/Selway

9:00 - 9:30 am 
Title: Accuracy of Perception in Training
Author: Brandon Deane Tracy
9:30 - 10:00 am
Title: Body Composition and aerobic/anaerobically trained athletes
Author: Karlie Smith & Gerald Ellison
10:00 - 10:30 am
Title: Can Mental Imagery Improve Open Motor Skill Performance?
Authors: Rebecca Jones, Maja Plaznik, Carlos Davila
10:30 - 11:00 am
Title: Lower Extremity Athletic Injuries is there a difference in risk factor when participating on Artificial Turf compared to Natural Grass
Author: Kacie Hewitt
11:00 - 11:30 am
Title: Psychological treatment during injury rehabilitation.
 Authors: Antonia Gutierrez
11:30 - noon
Title: How Training at Altitude Impacts Performance at Sea Level
Author: Dillon Dawson
noon - 1:00 pmlunch break
1:00 - 1:30 pm
Title: Mental Health in Student Athletes 
Authors: Riley Way and Braeden Wilson
1:30 - 2:00 pm
Title: COVID Lockdowns and Isolation 
Author: Luke Tedrick
2:00 - 2:30 pm
Title: Passing Time or Passing the Torch? Exploring Communication Purpose and Elements of Over conformity in Athlete Tweets
Authors: Timothy Libby & Dr. Heather Van Mullem   
2:30 - 3:00 pm
Author: Paxton Stimpson
Title: The Influence of Hamstring: Quadricep strength ratio on power output
3:00 - 3:30 pm
Title: The Art of Crowd Attendance
Author: Khalil Stevenson
3:30 - 3:45 pm
Title: What's Happening Up There? Air Inversions in the Lewis-Clark Valley 
Authors: Gabrielle Dickinson and Nancy A.C. Johnston   

Speakers Fri. May 6 in the Lochsa/Selway

8:45 - 9:00 am
Title: Effects of COVID-19 Disinfectant Products on Indoor Air Quality 
 Authors: William Bruchard, Aakriti Bajracharya and Nancy A. C. Johnston 
9:00 - 9:30 am
Title: Effect of Ammonia Inhalants on Performance in Athletic Populations
Author: Tyler L. Johnson
9:30 - 10:00 am
Title: Is Bacon Better than Broccoli?
Author: Christina Burgess
10:00 - 10:30 am
Title: What is the current mental health status in college students?
Authors: Azia, Dulce, and Caitlin
10:30 - 11:00 am
Title: Lower Body Biomechanics of Post-Surgical Knees and Healthy Knees During Single Leg Hops
Authors: Emily Cowdrey & Tori Frei
11:00 - 11:30 am
Title: Evaluating the Biomechanics, Velocity, and Accuracy of Collegiate Tennis Players
Authors: Kyla Collier, Thomas Schaap, and Larry Magalasin
11:30 - 11:45 am
Title: Diffusive uptake rates for passive air sampling: Applications to wildfire emissions during FIREX-AQ campaign and beyond 
Authors: Dylan D. Miller and Nancy A.C. Johnston 
11:45 - noon
Title: Seasonal Fire Smoke Impact on Air Quality in the Lewis-Clark Valley 
Authors: Dalynn Kenerson, Gabby Dickinson, Dylan Miller, Birgit Bradel-Tretheway, Nancy A.C. Johnston 

Posters Friday May 6 noon - 1:30 pm

Abstracts for Talks

Title: Is Bacon Better than Broccoli?
Author: Christina Burgess  
Abstract My research objective is to minimize the gap found between animal and plant protein sources. Instead of conducting new research, I conducted a meta-analysis. This allowed me to compare estimates and guidelines completed from different studies, methods that were utilized, various control variables as well as the samples that were collected. My focus was on how the different protein sources impacted that body and if one was a superior form of protein. First, I went over the PDCAAS to assess bioavailability of the sources, observed how the body utilized them the best and whether they had short or long terms effects on the body overall.  
Title: Effects of COVID-19 Disinfectant Products on Indoor Air Quality 
 Authors: William Bruchard, Aakriti Bajracharya and Nancy A. C. Johnston
 Abstract: The use of disinfectants during the COVID-19 pandemic has increased significantly. Some household products can contain toxic compounds such as sodium hypochlorite (bleach), alcohols, and scented chemicals (terpenes). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions were studied from use of five different disinfectants in different room and building types. Air samples were analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Clorox™ cleaner showed high concentrations of chloroform, doubling the risk of cancer from daily usage versus routine weekly cleaning. 
Title: Evaluating the Biomechanics, Velocity, and Accuracy of Collegiate Tennis Players 
Authors: Kyla Collier, Thomas Schaap, and Larry Magalasin 
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to analyze the serves of 12 collegiate tennis players on the LCSC men’s and women’s tennis teams and provide them feedback to improve the biomechanics of their serves to determine if there was a significant change in velocity and accuracy. The quantitative data was collected, measured, and analyzed using the smartphone application SwingVision, OnForm, and a speed radar. Each participant was given 10 balls to serve with a target placed in the service box under instruction of the researchers. The results are pending and will be shared at the senior research symposium.  
Title: Lower Body Biomechanics of Post-Surgical Knees and Healthy Knees During Single Leg Hops 
Authors: Emily Cowdrey & Tori Frei 
Abstract: This study compares the biomechanics of lower body joint angles during single leg hop landings between participants with recent knee surgery now cleared for single leg hop tasks and participants with no lower body injuries using 3D motion capture. Participants completed a warm-up and researchers placed reflective markers on the lower body anatomical landmarks. Participants completed three single leg hops on each leg. Data were analyzed to determine statistical significance of hip and knee flexion, knee valgus, and ankle dorsiflexion angles between groups at the lowest point of landing. No significant differences were found between groups in joint angles 
Title: How Training at Altitude Impacts Performance at Sea Level 
Author: Dillon Dawson 
Abstract: The purpose of this meta-analysis research was to determine how training at altitude impacts performance at sea level. Results were pulled from races run at the 5,000m & 10,000m distances by male, college-level athletes who train at universities that are at high altitudes. Results from races at both high altitudes and sea level were compiled and compared to determine how much of an advantage altitude-trained athlete were gaining when they race at sea level. The results will be shared at the senior research symposium. 
Title: Indigenous Use of Medicinal Plants 
Authors: Trenton Delva, Justin Dumas 
Abstract: We seek to describe how the Nimiipuu people of Hells Canyon used plant medicines. Illuminating these uses will give cultural history to traditional utilization. We seek to create a descriptive account of how these plants were used. We believe we will find various traditional plant medicines that were used by the Nimiipuu people during our field school in Hells Canyon. We conducted interviews with Nimiipuu tribal members, collected our own photographs, and reviewed existing literature. 
Title: What's Happening Up There? Air Inversions in the Lewis-Clark Valley 
Authors: Gabrielle Dickinson and Nancy A.C. Johnston 
Abstract: Thermal air inversions are caused by warm air resting above cold air, but what else is happening? Air quality in valleys is impacted by inversions, making them important to understand. Camera footage and meteorological data were assessed for various trends in 2020-2021 inversions in the Lewis-Clark Valley. Visible inversions occurred primarily in the fall, with low wind speeds, high relative humidity, and low solar radiation. Short lived elevations in particulate matter (PM2.5) levels were also observed. 
Title: Psychological treatment during injury rehabilitation
Author: Antonia Gutierrez 
Abstract: As much as people try to avoid accidents, they happen with frequency. Injuries cause physical damages to the body, but they also cause psychological damages that are often being overlooked. This survey study asked individuals if psychological treatment was a part of their injury rehabilitation process, and if it they believed that psychological treatment would have benefited their recovery. Participants included LCSC students, staff, and faculty over the age of 18 who have had an injury at any point of their life and received professional treatment. Results will be shared at the Senior Research Symposium. 
Title: Lower Extremity Athletic Injuries is there a difference in risk factor when participating on Artificial Turf compared to Natural Grass
Author: Kacie Hewitt 
Abstract: The objective of this meta-analysis was to identify if playing field surface material has an impact on lower extremity injuries in athletes. Previous studies and journals were evaluated to determine whether artificial turf or natural grass had more injuries during practices or games. Injury rates of both collegiate and professional athletes were analyzed and synthesized by merging independent findings of other research. The conclusion and interpretations of this study will be shared at the senior research symposium. 
Author: Tyler L. Johnson
Title: Effect of Ammonia Inhalants on Performance in Athletic Populations 
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of ammonia inhalants (smelling salts) on performance in athletic populations. This experiment took a total of eight participants with at least three years of exercise experience, and no medical restrictions. Each participant underwent a pilot testing period where baseline results could be recorded, and each participant had a chance to experience the ammonia. This was followed by randomly assigning which week the participants would or would not receive the ammonia during their testing. This experiment tested Wingate, vertical jump, and broad jump to look at things such as peak power, power, and fatigue resistance. The researchers used a paired sample t-test to determine if ammonia had any effect on performance in this population. The results will be shared at the senior research symposium. 
Title: Can Mental Imagery Improve Open Motor Skill Performance? 
Authors: Rebecca Jones, Maja Plaznik, Carlos Davila 
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was a positive or negative correlation in performance using visualization techniques in a game of cornhole. Twenty student-athletes and twenty students participated in five trials. Each participant was randomly assigned in an experimental and control group based on the pilot test. Experimental group received a treatment which was audio and visual visualization. Descriptive statistics were used to determine if there was a significant correlation between performance and visualization techniques. The results will be shared at the senior symposium.   
Title: Seasonal Fire Smoke Impact on Air Quality in the Lewis-Clark Valley 
Authors: Dalynn Kenerson, Gabby Dickinson, Dylan Miller, Birgit Bradel-Tretheway, Nancy A.C. Johnston 
Abstract: Seasonal wildfire smoke has been increasing in the Lewis-Clark (LC) Valley during the summer months. Air samples were captured (collected) in sorbent tubes from 2017 through 2021. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by means of thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy(TD-GC-MS) and compared with particulate matter data collected from an Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ) monitor. The data collected supports that air quality in the LC Valley became significantly worse during the fire seasons. 
Title: Passing Time or Passing the Torch? Exploring Communication Purpose and Elements of Over conformity in Athlete Tweets
Authors: Timothy Libby & Dr. Heather Van Mullem  
Abstract: This study analyzed active professional athlete (n=180) Twitter accounts and relative content to record the purpose and potential influence of these communications. Expanding upon the qualitative methodology in Hambrick et al. (2010), each athlete tweet and retweet in the months of April and May of 2021 were coded to record communication purpose and reach. Additionally, informed by Hughes and Coakley (1991), each tweet and retweet were coded to record whether the communication represented an affirmation of the “sport ethic” and which of the 4 elements were affirmed, if any. Results were pending as of March 23, 2022. 
Title: What is the current mental health status in college students? 
Authors: Azia Maund, Dulce Monter-Lopez, and Caitlin Brown 
Abstract: The purpose of this research study was to evaluate if there was a difference in depression and stress levels in student athlete’s vs non-athletes. The study was conducted at Lewis-Clark State College. Participants range from any age 18 or older and from various majors. It is important to look at the mental health of our students because it can affect individuals not only emotionally, but mentally and physically as well. Conclusions and interpretations will be shared at conference.  
Title: Diffusive uptake rates for passive air sampling: Applications to wildfire emissions during FIREX-AQ campaign and beyond 
Authors: Dylan D. Miller and Nancy A.C. Johnston 
Abstract: Diffusive air sampling is an effective method to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but diffusive uptake rates (UTRs) are necessary for quantification. Parallel sampling regimes derived UTRs for 27 VOCs with durations of 24-hours, 7, 14, and 28-days and ranged from 0.17-0.59 mL/min. These rates were applied to wildfire emission data from the 2019 NASA/NOAA FIREX-AQ campaign as well as 2020-2021 in the Northwest. The cancer risk due to benzene, a common smoke pollutant, was considered low.  
Title: Body Composition and aerobic/anaerobically trained athletes
Authors: Karlie Smith & Gerald Ellison
Abstract The purpose of this research was to determine the correlation between body composition and peak anaerobic power and aerobic capacity. Twenty participants volunteered to participate in our study and underwent a DEXA scan, vertical leap test, shot toss test, Wingate test, and a metabolic cart test. The selection of volunteers was limited to 2 people per sport that LCSC offers. Our study also included a population group of non-athletes. By looking at the research we can better understand the effects of high/low body compositions on athletic performance, thus opening the conversation for different body types in sport. This research is going to provide statistical information about why, when looking at an athlete's performance, looking directly at weight as a means of “the problem”, is not valid and can cause a plethora of other issues. The results will be shared at the senior research symposium spring of 2022. 
Title: The Art of Crowd Attendance.
Author: Khalil Stevenson  
Abstract: The general purpose of this research is to find out what keeps fans from games and finding solutions to try to change that. Anybody that has attended a sporting event with a good crowd knows home court advantage is no joke. In this Meta-Analysis, a survey will be given to LCSC students 18 or older. This survey will be huge in answering the questions about why fans do not attend sporting events. The results from the survey will be discussed at the symposium. 
Title: The Influence of Hamstring: Quadricep strength ratio on power output
Author: Paxton Stimpson   
Abstract: Hamstring: Quadricep strength ratio (H:Q) has been used previously to gauge injury risk in athletes due to imbalances in strength. The purpose of this research is to determine if H:Q ratio could be used to analyze power output. Participants will include 18-28-year old’s that have at least six months of experience with resistance training. H:Q will be determined via 5 repetition maxes for leg extensions and laying leg curls. Power output is measured via vertical leap test and via a Wingate. Imbalances between leg will be measured as well. Results will be shared at the Senior Research symposium.  
Title: COVID Lockdowns and Isolation 
Author: Luke Tedrick 
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if COVID 19 lockdowns and protocols had any negative effects on college students' mental health. The study was conducted through a survey sent out to the students at LCSC. The survey was designed to question individuals about restrictions imposed on fitness facilities, classrooms, social gathering places, and sports to determine if there was any negative effect on their mental health. Did the lockdowns cause people to work out less, socialize less, which could lead to depression, anxiety and stress? With a 99.98% survival rate from COVID 19, were lockdowns really that helpful with so many negative side effects that our students, businesses, and communities are still trying to rebound from. These questions will be discussed at the Senior Research Symposium.   
Title: Accuracy of Perception in Training
Author: Brandon Deane Tracy
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to measure the difference between the reported and performed ability to improve safety of exercise prescription. Healthy, college age and older individuals, who participate in resistance training activities will perform 2 trials. Participants will perform a max repetition squat test weighted at 1.5 times their Fat Free Mass. The variables measured include PRE, number of repetitions performed, body composition, weight, height, and injury preventative biomarkers. A T-test was performed to determine if there was any difference between the reported and performed repetitions. The results will be shared at the symposium. 
Title: Mental Health in Student Athletes
Author: Riley Way and Braeden Wilson   
Abstract: The purpose of this research study is to evaluate if there is a difference in mental health stigma between student-athletes and ordinary students. The study was conducted at Lewis-Clark State College. Participants being studied are in a range from 18 and older who are enrolled at LCSC. It is important to look at the mental health of our student-athletes and students because it can impact their performance in the classroom and field or court from the abundance of work they must put in. Statistics and conclusions will be shared at the Senior Research Symposium. 

Abstracts for Posters

Title: Hells Canyon Interactive Tour 
Authors: McKenzie Bowey, Kylie Wilson 
Abstract: GIS platforms give opportunities to build an interactive map through Hells Canyon, creating easier accessibility and knowledge. A map was created using ArcGIS Pro that was accessible offline to collect data in the canyon on Esri’s app, “Field Maps”. Descriptive details collected, and photos taken were added to their respective points. Upon returning, data points and information were automatically synced to the original web map and added into Experience Builder to create an interactive tour. 
Title: Detection of Nickel and Lead in Beverages by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 
Authors: William Bruchard and Nancy A. C. Johnston 
Abstract: Nickel is essential to the human body under specific concentrations while lead can cause toxic effects. A hypothesis that excess metals would be observed in drinks packaged in aluminum cans was tested. The two heavy metals were analyzed in different beverages in glass, aluminum, and plastic containers. Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Preliminary results show the presence of nickel in some beverages. 
Title: Differences between how sucrose and ascorbic acid affect the heat and radical degradation of anthocyanins 
Authors: Jennifer Cermak, Chloe Sparkman, Scottie Teichmer 
Abstract: The pigmentation of anthocyanins allows them to be excellent indicators of food degradation by heat or radicals. The aim of this study was to determine how differently the addition of either sucrose or ascorbic acid to anthocyanins affects their degradation. UV-visible spectrometry was used to determine that sucrose protected the anthocyanins from thermal degradation but not radical degradation. Ascorbic acid slightly protected them from radical degradation, but formed a new compound when exposed to heat. 
Title: End of the Road - Wildlife Shuttle App 
Authors: Brycen Cloward, Jay Myers, Karon Fox, Nikolaus Trujillo, Raul Delioth, Taylor Fox, William Grubin
Abstract: Idaho Wilderness Shuttles is a digital shuttle planning service dedicated to planning shuttle trips for those excited to explore the wilderness, Idaho, and her recreational activities. You can plan, pay for, and plot trips in accordance to shuttle schedules all at the same time, with no hassle, right on your phone! We at Idaho Wilderness Shuttles thought it’d be great to have the accessibility and ease of an app to plan your trip with the click of a button, so we set out to develop this app and our site, making use of the Ionic and Angular frameworks, bootstrap, Google's Firebase development platform, and more; such as the included PayPal and login functionality for google! Use our app to plan your trip to and from a family get-away, a weekend with friends, a vacation with co-workers, and more! We strive to make it easier, simpler, faster, and more fun to plan your trip, allowing you more time to enjoy the outdoors, your friends, your family, and Idaho. This app will make scheduling and planning our shuttle services a breeze so that you don’t have to fret over the details. Come have fun with us at the end of the road!  
Title: The Successful Start App
Authors: Brycen Cloward, Mohamed Aziz Boubaker, and Arij Zitouni
Abstract: The Successful Start App is a digital platform dedicated to helping high school students, high school graduates, and adult learners better plan their future college career. Many students may not be certain what path to follow in college. This app was designed as a cross-platform tool wherein users can sort their resources and declare work experience and previously taken tests such as the AP exam, CLEP exam, IB exam, and DSST exam. The app calculates credits and suggests the academic major the user is closest to achieving. Users will also be able to directly contact LC State or schedule an appointment with an advisor through the app to make admission to the college easy and convenient. This app was developed with the Ionic Framework using React. It can help many high school graduates and adult learners get started on the path to attaining a college degree at LC State as well as provide an easy-to-use platform for current high school students to prepare and plan for college credit exams before they graduate. 
Title: Cytokine inhibition as an alternative treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus 
Authors: Emily Cowdrey, Sal Hernandez, Abbey Marler, Heidi Sellmann 
Abstract:  Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by the production of antibodies that recognize self DNA. Excessive proinflammatory response is the main contributor to SLE. Research suggests cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α play a role in increasing inflammation and autoimmunity. Abnormal autophagy in macrophages can cause excess production of those proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking macrophage autophagy can reduce proinflammatory cytokines, and Beclin 1 knockdown macrophages may be an effective method for this treatment. Emerging research shows the pathogenesis and novel treatment of SLE may lie within the complex network of cytokines. 
Title: Indigenous Use of Medicinal Plants 
Authors: Trenton Delva, Justin Dumas 
Abstract: We seek to describe how the Nimiipuu people of Hells Canyon used plant medicines. Illuminating these uses will give cultural history to traditional utilization. We seek to create a descriptive account of how these plants were used. We believe we will find various traditional plant medicines that were used by the Nimiipuu people during our field school in Hells Canyon. We conducted interviews with Nimiipuu tribal members, collected our own photographs, and reviewed existing literature. 
Title: Chinese Massacre Cove 
Authors: Max Galeano, Tryston Soderstrom 
Abstract: Chinese Massacre Cove is a memorial representing the tragic lives lost of 34 Chinese men in Hells Canyon. We’re discovering what went into getting this memorial created by researching the people involved. Our task is to explore the ins and outs of setting up this process and the legal struggles of creating a monument. Through our research we will discover what this memorial means to the people working to share Hells Canyon’s deep history.  
Title: A Snail’s Adventures—The Graphic Novel 
Author: Rachel Gulotta 
Abstract: Let’s explore what occurs throughout the life of a snail and if they actually live in slow motion. The three mountain snail species found in Hells Canyon will be the main characters of three adventures. By going through their growth stages and rates, eating habits, traveling tendencies, communities, habitats, life span, breeding/mating, and death causes, we will discover what happens during the whimsical life of Mr. Snail.  
Title: Triglyceride Levels in Drosophila Melanogaster are Lower in Blm-deficient Individuals 
Authors: Sara Hathaway, Eric Stoffregen, Kyra Lockett, Brayden Graves, Abygail Marler, and Kenedi Freeman 
Abstract: Blm DNA helicase in Drosophila melanogaster is essential for normal DNA replication during early development. We tested whether development without Blm protein affects metabolism by measuring triglyceride levels in adults.Our data suggests that Blm-deficient development results in lower triglyceride levels in adult flies, both in males and females. These results indicate that the DNA damage sustained by embryos lacking Blm might affect metabolic processes into adulthood.
Title: Lucid Companion 
Authors: Raven Holt, Kyrie Jones, Cody Wheeler, Mattye Johnson
Abstract: Trying to lucid dream for the first time can be overwhelming. There are so many resources available online to sift through, and some can be contradictory or even false. We have chosen to develop an app that contains all of the necessary information in one centralized location that a user needs to begin lucid dreaming. In addition to a plethora of guides and tips, the app also contains useful features to aid a user in lucid dreaming. These features include alarms optimized to wake a user up and help them to write down their dreams; a logging system for dreams, complete with the option to tag dreams so that they are more easily found when a user wishes to access them later; and graphs to chart a user’s dreams; as well as other tools and features. The app will be available on Android and iOS and was developed using Ionic frameworks. In offering this app to the public, we hope that we can help individuals to strengthen their ability to lucid dream, whether it is their first time trying to do so or their hundredth, and we wish to offer an easy, one-stop-shop for lucid dreaming tools and information.  
Title: Extraction of Anthocyanin 3-Glucoside in the Presence of Different pH Buffers 
Authors: Shastine Huddleston, Emerson Snyder, Madison Van Gelder 
Abstract: Anthocyanins are what give different plants their color. Peaches contain one anthocyanin, Cyanidin-3-Glucoside, and is the driving factor in determining which anthocyanin to extract. The use of an extraction apparatus to concentrate the solution into an ether layer, then evaporating the excess solvent helped to determine the structure of Cyanidin -3-Glucoside. A final Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Instrument (NMR) displayed a graph that allowed the structure of the anthocyanin to be determined.
Title: Acid Precipitation Analysis in the Lewis-Clark Valley 
Authors: Dalynn Kennerson, Anika Busz, & Nancy A. C. Johnston 
Abstract: Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are known to be emitted from paper mills. Sulfur and nitrogen can mix with water in the atmosphere to form sulfates, nitrates, and nitrites. These compounds were analyzed in the fog and rain of Lewiston, Idaho. The samples were collected by setting up a fog capture device and analyzed with a pH meter and ion chromatography. Preliminary results show the presence of acid in the form of these ions. 
Title: Detection of Anthocyanins in Red Cabbage Extract
Authors: Dalynn Kennerson, Madilyn Sorenson, Jonathan Vivian, Kaylan Youngman
Abstract: Prior literature has demonstrated that the pigmentation in red cabbage is caused by light interacting with conjugated structures in anthocyanins. We attempted to isolate the anthocyanins through a series of processes: extraction, filtration, freeze drying, evaporation, and column chromatography. Comparing an NMR from a sample without processing to a sample with processing demonstrated purification was necessary to detect the aromatic rings characteristic in anthocyanins.
Title: Modern Immunotherapeutic Treatments Being Leveraged Against Ovarian Cancer 
Authors: Kyra Lockett, Brayden Graves, Rosario Morales 
Abstract: Clinical data show evidence of spontaneous antitumor immune response associating with longer survival in some ovarian cancer patients. Some chemotherapeutic drugs, such as Resveratrol and Paclitaxel, lead to immunomodulation of ovarian carcinoma cells. Cellular mediated immunotherapies include the use of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cells, which are taken from the patient and modified to recognize ovarian carcinoma cells once re-introduced to the body. These systems could greatly improve ovarian cancer treatments and patient outlook. 
Title: Long-Term Effects of Blm-deficient Development in Drosophila melanogaster 
Authors: Kyra Lockett, Brayden Graves, Abbey Marler, Kenedi Freeman, Sara Hathaway, Eric Stoffregen 
Abstract: Blm DNA helicase is essential during early development in Drosophila. Most embryos from Blm mutant mothers do not survive due to a lack of maternal Blm protein. We hypothesize that the small number of progeny that survive will experience DNA damage that has long-term biological consequences such as reduced adult body weight, metabolic defects, and reduced lifespan. To test these hypotheses, adult flies that developed with or without Blm during early development were compared.  
Title: Endangered Flora of the Hells Canyon Region 
Authors: Kyra Lockett, BreeLynn Robinson 
Abstract: Hells Canyon has many habitats, including canyon grasslands that are home to two regionally endemic and federally threatened species: Spalding’s catchfly (Silene spaldingii) and Macfarlane’s four-o-clock (Mirabilis macfarlanei). We will discuss the factors that contribute to the endangerment of these species, their ecological roles, and reasons for conservation. Conservation is vital for future generations to fully know, learn from, and appreciate this beautiful native landscape. 
Title: Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Causes of the Disorder and the Treatments using TNF Inhibitors 
Author: Amber Martin, Theresa Jeske, and Kennedi Freeman 
Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks healthy joint tissue causing inflammation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is produced by the immune system and is connected to the inflammation process in RA. TNF suppressors/antagonists are a common biologic treatment used to combat and slow the progression of RA. TNF inhibitors target these proinflammatory cytokines through unique pathways that produce both positive and negative immune responses.  
Title: Optimizing the Extraction Methods of Biomolecules from Moringa Oleifera 
Author: Katherine McCown Mentor: Lloyd Mataka 
Abstract: In the last decade, there has been considerable effort to study biomolecules responsible for the medicinal properties of natural products. Little information is available about which extraction method is the most efficient. Soxhlet and reflux methods were compared in their effectiveness in extracting biomolecules in natural products. Results of pilot trials suggest that reflux extraction is more efficient when time is limited while Soxhlet extraction produces a higher yield when done over a longer period.  
Title: Determining Diffusive Uptake Rates for Compounds Found in Biomass Burning Emissions
Authors: Dylan D. Miller and Nancy A. C. Johnston 
Abstract: Diffusive uptake rates of volatile organic compounds on sorbent tubes were measured for their application to passive air sampling. Rates were determined using parallel active and passive air sampling techniques. All analyses were accomplished using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. During the summer fire season of 2021, terpene compounds were targeted for uptake rate determination by sampling wildfire smoke. The results of these investigations and a current application will be discussed. 
Title: Air Analysis of Compost Emissions 
Authors: Rosario Morales, Shastine Huddleston, Thomas Jobson, and Nancy A. C. Johnston 
Abstract: Compost is known to emit a combination of compounds into the air, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and greenhouse gases. Compost samples were collected at two different facilities by pumping air through a water trap followed by an air sorbent tube. A Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometer (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the air fraction, while a Head-Space Gas Chromatograph (HS-GC) was utilized to measure the water fraction. VOCs such as alcohols and terpenes were found and will be discussed. 
Title: The Effects of Microplastics and their Leachates on Freshwater Macroinvertebrate Communities. 
Author: Sara Muehlhausen 
 Abstract Single use plastics have become one of the most widely used goods across the world, but the lack of management of plastic waste has had some harmful environmental effects. These plastics may enter freshwater marine environments and breakdown into smaller pieces known as microplastics which may then be accidentally consumed by organisms or leach toxins into the water. This research focuses on how the presence of these microplastics and toxins in freshwater affect macroinvertebrate communities. The methods used will include taking samples of substrate and water from various locations to determine areas of low and high plastic concentration. Samples of macroinvertebrates will then be taken from these areas. It is expected that the areas of higher plastic concentration will have less variation in the macroinvertebrate communities.
Title: ROCKS of Hells Canyon - A Geology Field Guide 
Author: Carissa Myers 
Abstract: Hells Canyon was formed millions of years ago. This guide will show the different kind of rocks, their timeline, and how they came to be in the canyon. The field guide will catalog different rock units from Igneous to Sedimentary and how Tectonics have played an important role. I will utilize Microsoft word to create this guide along with photos taken, the scientific name, elemental makeup, hardness, geological period, and where it would be found. 
Title: Lead and the Snake River 
Author: Annalisa Nava 
Abstract: Conservationists have found how detrimental lead bullets, these seemingly insignificant products, can be to the land, air, other animals, and ecosystem all together. With these being discovered science can now question how lead products in the fishing industry affect the wildlife and water quality, specifically in the Snake River? Through literature review I will determine whether lead has a negative impact on both water quality and the fish populations in the Snake River. 
Title: LCSC CONNECT
Authors: Debbie Ogidan, Arij Zitouni, Isaiah Evans, Bradyn Toy, Kenny Louis-McGee 
Abstract: While College can be a great experience for some people, a major problem faced by college students around the globe is how hard it is to form a connection with peers and like-minded individuals. With this in mind, the idea of our app was born specifically for LCSC students to make it easier to connect, and make friends. In addition to that, our app hopes to improve the academic experience of LCSC Students by allowing students to interact with professors and staff members. With the LC Connect app, we plan to bridge the gap in communication among students on campus to create a better experience for users.  
Title: Mountain Snails on Calcium Rich and Basalt Rocks 
Author: Louis C. Pennow 
Abstract: The North American Mountain Snail is the most diverse land snail; both the specific genus and environment affect its shell shape. On Cottonwood Creek in Hells Canyon, ornamental snail shells are found on both calcite rich units and basalt units. I suspect that since the Calcite rich rocks are close by that pieces of the Limestone and Marble will be mixed with the soil in certain areas, giving these snails an ornamented shell shape.  
Title: “More acidic anthocyanin dyes result in better color fastness on cotton fabric” 
Authors: BreeLynn Robinson, Rachel Hull, Cameron Blackburn 
Abstract: Natural fabric dyes such as anthocyanins limit the need for synthetic dyes for clothing. Blackberries produce cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin dye which displays optimal color fastness at pH 1. The benefit of the low pH may be twofold: it catalyzes deglycosylation, and increases binding to aluminum in the mordant.
Title: Optical Color Mixing; How it affects color perception in Hells Canyon 
Author: Zoë Undercuffler 
Abstract: Implications of colors within Hells Canyon’s terrain, and how it blends the variations of colors together? Psychology explains a phenomenon; optical color mixing, which might explain why individuals look at a hill and describe a monotone color when there is a wide range presented. Implications can be used from previous research, concluding that color perception is subjective to the environment around it.